Sunday, November 25, 2012

What You Need to Have in Your Medicine Cabinet for Your Show Pig Project




One of the frequent things I get asked is what medications show pig families should have on hand. Administering medications to food animals is serious business and proper care should be taken to use the right product at the right time the right way. Make sure that people that are doing so are properly trained and keep appropriate records.

The goal here is not to replace the advice you get from your veterinarian. Some of the drugs that we will discuss are prescription and some you will use extra label so your relationship with your local veterinarian is critical.This is meant to provide some baseline information on a few common medications and how they are used. 

Before we get to the medications let’s talk equipment. Having the right gear is mission critical and will save you time, money, and frustration.  

Syringes:
I really like the Ardes syringes for giving individual animal treatments. The fit in your hand and are lots easier than trying to use a disposable and are a lot cheaper than a multi-dose pistol grip. If you can’t find them at a local clinic or store QC Supply has them for about $6. You will want a 10 cc and a 20 cc. The 20 cc is actually easier to handle if you have small hands but the 10cc is more accurate to measure smaller doses. 

Needles:
I like these D3 detectible needles from Ideal. They cost a few pennies more but their construction makes them much less likely to break and if they do they are detectible so we can find a retrieve them.
As far as the size needles you need use this chart from the PQA program as a guide. 


Thermometer:
You really should have one of these on hand. The cheap digital ones you can get at your local pharmacy work just fine and don’t break like glass ones. The normal temperature for a pig is 102.5 but can vary a bit. Younger pigs will have a slightly higher normal body temp.

Sorting Panel
If you are going to give pigs injections, you really need one of these. 

Medications:  For each of the medications we will discuss what it isused for, withdrawal, and dosage. Your veterinarian knows what works best in your area so their advice is mission critical. 

Wormers: The normal recommendation is to de worm your show pigs once a month.

Safeguard. You need to feed Safegard for three to 12 days in a row . Safeguard comes in many forms but the easiest for show pigs might be the Safeguard EZ Scoop that is meant for sows. The scoop that comes in the 10 pound bucket treats 400 pounds so use ¼ scoop for a 100 pound pig and give that same amount three days in a row.  There is no withdrawal. 

Ivermectin  is not a great wormer as far as being a broad spectrum. It kills worms that have round bodies but it is not effective on the ones with flat bodies like hookworms.  But it does have the advantage of killing lice and mange.  Lots of people use it when they have pigs in isolation and after coming home from a show  for that purpose. The dosage is 1 cc per 75 pounds and the withdrawal is 18 days. 

Anti-Inflammatory Meds:

Banamine S  is a prescription non steroidal anti inflammatory and is labeled to relieve fever during respiratory disease. The dosage is 2 cc per hundred pounds IM  and the withdrawal is 12 days. In addition to relieving fever this product also relieves pain and inflammation so there are a number of extra label uses you will want to discuss with your veterinarian. 

Dexamethasone  is a prescription steroidal anti inflammatory.  It is labeled for use in cattle and horses so it is always extra label use when you administer it to pigs. As such your veterinarian will establish both the withdrawal time and the dosage. When we label it for our clients we label it for 1 cc / 40# IM or SubQ  and use 8 days for a withdrawal time. 

Vitamins / Minerals / Other 

B Complex Is an over the counter product but there are some formulations that are prescription. It can be used to treat and prevent the symptoms of Vitamin B deficiency. There are a whole bunch of different formulations of B complex so consult the label for dose and withdrawal information.

Vitamin B 12 is a prescription product that will stimulate appetite and is often used along with treatment for other disease. The most common formulation is 3000 mcg /ml but there are at least two other strengths so look at the label.  The usual dosage of the 3000 mcg/ml product is 1-2 ml per head SubQ  and there is no withdrawal.

Bo Se is a combination of Vitamin E and Selenium it is used to treat and prevent Vitamin E and Selenium deficiency.  This is common in some parts of the country and other parts of the country have adequate and even excess selenium in the soil. So you need to work with your local veterinarian. BoSe is a prescription product the dose is 1 cc per 40 pounds IM or SubQ  and withdrawal is 14 days.  

TrueGlo is an all natural feed supplement with probiotics, MOS, Beta Glucans, and Octacosanol. It is feed every day to support the immune system, healthy joints and the building of the right kind of muscle.

Over the Counter Antibiotics

Penicillin G works well against gram positive organisms that are not resistant.  It is usually used at an extra label dose so you need to work with your veterinarian. We label it at 5 c per hundred pounds IM for our clients and the new recommended withdrawal is 51 days when it is administered at that dose.  It must be administered every 24 hours and limit it to no more than 10 cc per injection site. With the new longer withdrawal we have all but eliminated using penicillin in pigs. 

Tylan 50 and 200 Both of these have the same antibiotic at different concentrations. They are labeled for swine pneumonia, erysipelas, arthritis, and scours. We probably use them most often to treat growing and finishing pigs with scours and occasionally for lame pigs. The dosage for Tylan 50 is 1 cc per 12.5 pounds and for Tylan 200 1 cc per 50 pounds IM. Do not inject more than 5 cc in an injection site. The withdrawal is 14 days.

LA 200 is oxytetracycline 200 mg / ml. It is used to treat pneumonia and occasionally scours. Some also give it to sows after farrowing to help control baby pig scours and prevent mastitis and metritis in the sow. It is usually given at 4.5 cc per 100 pounds which does not need to be repeated for 72 hours. It can also be administered at 1.5 or 2.5 cc per hundred pounds daily. Do not exceed 5 cc per injection site.

Lincomycin 100 or 300 These are the same medication in two different strengths. The most common reason we use this is for arthritis and Mycoplasma pneumonia. The dose is 1 cc per 20 pounds for Lincomycin 100 and 1 cc per 60 pounds for Lincomycin 300. Technically Lincomycin 300 is only supposed to be used in pigs over 300 pounds. So if you intend to use it in smaller pigs that is extra label use and you should consult your veterinarian. The withdrawal for both is 48 hours.

Prescription Antibiotics There are a number of prescription antibiotics that your veterinarian might recommend  I will just talk about three.

Draxxin  is labeled for swine respiratory disease and is active against the majority of bacterial agents that cause respiratory disease.  Draxxin is a “go to” medication for pigs with pneumonia. It is unique in it has a short withdrawal time but delivers several days of therapeutic levels of drug in the lung. The dosage is 0.25 cc / 22 pounds IM and the withdrawal is 5 days.  

Baytril is another good treatment for respiratory disease in pigs. Baytril is in a special class and there is no extra label use of this medication allowed. Baytril is another “go to” for respiratory disease. If you use it follow the label exactly so you stay within the law. The dosage is 3.4 cc/ 100 pounds SubQ and the withdrawal is 5 days.

Naxcel / Excenel RTU / Excede  All three of these are the same antibiotic in three different forms and with two different dosages and withdrawals.All three are prescription products. FDA has recently restricted the use of these products. They can not be used as blanket treatments to prevent disease and they must be used at the dose on the bottle. There is still some limited extra label use. For example you can still use Naxcel to treat a pig with Strep meningitis or inner ear infection if you follow the label dosage. 

Naxcel comes as a dry powder that you reconstitute with water.  Once you mix it te product is good for 7 days in the refrigerator. If you still have some left at the end of the 7 days you can freeze and keep it for 8 weeks but when you thaw it one time discard any unused portion.  The dosage is 1 cc per 22 to 37 pounds IM and repeat the dosage daily for three days. The withdrawal period is 4 days. 

Excenel RTU is essentially the same as Naxcel but in a ready to use shelf stable format that you store at room temperature.  You need to shake it well before use. The dose is the same as Naxcel 1 cc per 22 to 37 pounds IM three days in a row and the withdrawal is 4 days. 

Excede has a long duration of activity so it does not have to be re-administered. The dosage is 1 cc per 44 pounds and the withdrawal is 14 days.  Do not administer more than 2 cc per injection site.